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General Overview

Romania’s financial landscape has evolved significantly over the past decade, with loans and microcredit playing a crucial role in the economy. The country has seen a steady increase in the availability and variety of credit products available to both households and businesses. This growth has been supported by a combination of local financial institutions, international banks, and fintech companies, all contributing to a more dynamic and competitive market.

Types of Lending to Households and Businesses

Household Lending

  1. Personal Loans: Unsecured loans that individuals can use for various personal expenses, such as home renovations, medical bills, or education.
  2. Mortgages: Secured loans for purchasing property, with the property itself serving as collateral.
  3. Consumer Credit: Short-term loans for purchasing consumer goods, often provided through credit cards or retailer financing.
  4. Microcredit: Small loans typically aimed at low-income individuals or those without access to traditional banking services. These are often used for starting small businesses or personal emergencies.

Business Lending

  1. SME Loans: Loans specifically designed for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), often with favorable terms to encourage business growth.
  2. Corporate Loans: Larger loans for established businesses, used for expansion, capital investments, or operational costs.
  3. Agricultural Loans: Loans tailored for the agricultural sector, helping farmers with equipment purchases, seed money, and other operational needs.
  4. Microcredit for Entrepreneurs: Small-scale loans aimed at helping entrepreneurs start or grow their businesses, often with a focus on underserved or rural areas.

State of the Market from 2021 to 2024


  • The Romanian economy began recovering from the COVID-19 pandemic, with a gradual increase in lending activities.
  • Household debt remained relatively stable, with a slight increase in demand for personal loans and mortgages as consumer confidence returned.
  • Businesses, particularly SMEs, sought more credit to stabilize and expand their operations post-pandemic.
  • Microcredit saw increased demand, especially in rural areas where traditional banking services were less accessible.


  • Continued economic recovery led to a more robust lending market.
  • Increased competition among financial institutions resulted in better loan terms and lower interest rates for consumers and businesses.
  • Digitalization accelerated, with more online platforms and fintech companies offering innovative lending solutions.
  • Government initiatives supported microcredit programs aimed at fostering entrepreneurship and reducing poverty.


  • The lending market experienced sustained growth, with a notable increase in mortgage applications as the real estate market picked up.
  • SMEs benefited from a range of new loan products tailored to support innovation and digital transformation.
  • Microcredit institutions expanded their reach, leveraging technology to provide more accessible services.
  • Regulatory changes aimed at protecting consumers and ensuring fair lending practices were implemented, improving market stability.


  • The market continued to grow, although at a more moderate pace as the economy stabilized.
  • Households showed a preference for secured loans, such as mortgages, over unsecured personal loans.
  • Businesses focused on sustainable and green financing options, reflecting global trends toward environmental responsibility.
  • Microcredit remained a vital tool for financial inclusion, with increased support from both the public and private sectors.

Key Players

  1. Banca Comercială Română (BCR): One of the largest banks in Romania, offering a wide range of loan products for both individuals and businesses.
  2. Raiffeisen Bank: Known for its strong SME lending programs and innovative digital banking solutions.
  3. BRD – Groupe Société Générale: A major player in both personal and business lending, with a significant presence in the mortgage market.
  4. CEC Bank: Focuses heavily on agricultural and rural lending, playing a crucial role in the microcredit sector.
  5. BT Microfinanțare (BT Mic): A subsidiary of Banca Transilvania, specializing in microcredit for entrepreneurs and small businesses.
  6. Fintech Companies (e.g.,, Credius): Emerging players leveraging technology to offer fast, convenient lending solutions.


  • Digital Transformation: Increased use of digital platforms and fintech solutions for loan applications, approvals, and management.
  • Sustainable Financing: Growing interest in green loans and sustainable investment products among both businesses and consumers.
  • Financial Inclusion: Expansion of microcredit services to underserved communities, particularly in rural areas.
  • Regulatory Changes: Implementation of new regulations aimed at ensuring fair lending practices and protecting consumers from predatory lending.
  • Economic Stability: A stable economy fostering a balanced growth in both household and business lending.


The loans and microcredit market in Romania has undergone significant changes from 2021 to 2024, characterized by recovery from the pandemic, digital transformation, and regulatory improvements. Key players, including major banks and emerging fintech companies, have contributed to a dynamic and competitive environment. While challenges remain, particularly in ensuring financial inclusion and managing economic volatility, the overall outlook for the Romanian lending market is positive. Continued innovation and responsible lending practices will be essential in maintaining this growth trajectory and supporting the financial well-being of both households and businesses.